Certified Robotic Arc Welding


The AWS Certification Program for Robotic Arc Welding - Operators and Technicians (CRAW) allows many welding personnel employed in various welding sectors to measure themselves against standards for their occupation. It also signifies that the CRAW Operator or Technician has demonstrated the capability of working with various codes, standards, and specifications. Since proof of active practice or re-examination is required every three years, certification also signifies that the CRAW Operator or Technician is current with the welding industry.

CRAW Approved Testing Centers

AWS CRAW Approved Testing Centers (ATCs) prepare individuals for certification and administer both the practical and written exams at their respective facilities.

Do you have the necessary arc welding equipment to test individuals to the requirements of the Certified Robotic Arc Welding (CRAW) program? If so, consider applying for AWS Approved Testing Center (ATC) designation. As a designated CRAW ATC, your facility enjoys valuable industry recognition, including your AWS website listing and periodic Welding Journal magazine advertising. Visit the ATC Facility Accreditation information page: CRAW APPROVED TESTING CENTER.

Requirements for CRAW Exam Qualification
The AWS D16.4:2005 Specification for the Qualification of Robotic Arc Welding Personnel and the QC19, Specification for AWS Certification of Robotic Arc Welding Personnel sets the experience and education requirements for taking the CRAW examination and provides training recommendations:

High school graduate or have achieved a state or military approved high school equivalency (e.g., GED).
Operator and Technician

At least 6 months.
Operator and Technician

Includes the before mentioned 6 months of manual or semiautomatic arc welding.
Operator = 12 months
Technician = 18 months

Includes welder experience listed above and other functions such as inspector or quality control.
Operator = 3 or more years
Technician = 5 or more years

Post-secondary education in welding, technical, robotic, technology, electrical, or engineering discipline, may be substituted for an equal number of years, but not more than 2 years.

  • Post-secondary education may not be substituted for or credited toward the before mentioned experience requirements of (6) months of manual or semiautomatic arc welding processes as a welder.
    Operator and Technician
  • Post-secondary education may not be substituted for the months of experience as a welder.
    Operator = 12 months (including robotic and automatic operator)
    Technician = 18 months (including robotic and automatic operator)

Hold current CWI (Certified Welding Inspector) certification. Current CWI certification is a requirement for the CRAW-T certification. Failure to achieve and/or maintain CWI certification will result in the CRAW-O certification ONLY.
Technician only.

Operator: Completion of original equipment manufacturer or equivalent Robotic Programming Course provided by an AWS Approved Testing Center (ATC). AWS current does not have training on this topic.

Technician: Receive instruction in the operation of quality measuring tools in including applicable computer software for measuring the weld cross section. Also, be familiar with personal computers. Self-study or training through third party providers such as ATCs is recommended. AWS current does not have training on this topic.


Photo ID Requirements



Training is offered by several AWS Approved Testing Centers (ATCs). Be sure to contact an ATC representative to submit your application and schedule your CRAW training and exam.

AWS CRAW Approved Testing Centers (ATCs) List


Examination Minimum number of questions

Each of the two examinations shall not have an individual score less than 75%. The examination is two hours long. Part A exam consists of 136 multiple choice questions. The exam will be given in a closed book format. The Part B practical exam is performance based and consists of 30 tasks that cover the practical demonstration of knowledge and ability involving a robotic system and are completed in sequential order. The CRAW written examination subjects are listed in AWS QC19, Specification for AWS Certification of Robotic Arc Welding Personnel. In preparation for the practical examination, candidates may use the CRAW Performance Test- Candidate Information Booklet. Both parts of the exam will be conducted at the same AWS Approved Testing Center.

Registration/Application for Training and Exams
Welding personnel who wish to be trained and tested for CRAW certification can do so by contacting an ATC representative at any of the AWS CRAW Approved Testing Centers (ATCs).

If an individual fails any portion of the CRAW exam, contact the AWS Approved Testing Center (ATC) representative to schedule a date to retest.

Veteran Benefits

If you're a veteran with G.I. Bill Benefits, and you're looking for a good job, or you want to change jobs, or if you want to move ahead in your present job, licensing or certification may hold the key for you!

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Body of Knowledge

The written exam covers the following subject areas. There is no body of knowledge for the practical exam, however the CRAW Performance Test - Candidate Information Booklet provides the tasks that test candidates are expected to complete.

Subject Approximate %
Weld Equipment Setup   8
Welding Processes 15
Weld Examination 8
Definitions and Terminology 8
Symbols - Welding & Robotics 4
Safety 12
Destructive Testing 8
Conversion and Calculations 3
Robot Programming and Logic 20
Welding Procedures 8
Kinematic Concepts 3
Robot Arc Weld Cell Compenents - ID 3
Totals 100%

The CRAW exams (written and practical) are taken from the following references:

  • AWS A3.0, Standard Welding Terms and Definitions
  • AWS B1.10, Guide for Nondestructive Inspection of Welds
  • AWS B1.11, Guide for Visual Welding Inspection
  • AWS B5.1, Qualification Standard for AWS Welding Inspectors
  • AWS QC1, Standard for AWS Certification of Welding Inspectors
  • AWS WI, Welding Inspection
  • AWS CM-00, Certification Manual for Welding Inspectors
  • AWS B2.1, Specification for Welding Procedure and Performance Qualification
  • AWS D8.8, Specification for Automotive and Light Truck Weld Quality: Arc Welding
  • AWS D16.2, Standard for Components of Robotic and Automatic Welding
  • AWS D16.3, Risk Assessment Guide for Robotic Arc Welding
  • AWS D16.4, Specification for the Qualification of Robotic Arc Welding Personnel
  • ANSI Z49.1, Safety in Welding, Cutting and Allied Processes (published by the American Welding Society)
  • NEMA EW-1, Electric Arc Welding Power Sources AWS Arc Welding with Robots, Do's and Don'ts
  • Automating the Welding Process, Jim Berge, Industrial Press
  • AWS Welding Handbook, Volume 1, 9th Edition
  • AWS Welding Handbook Volume 2, 8th Edition  Robot Programming Manual (published by robot manufacturer)
  • AWS 058, Arc Welding Automation, Howard Car
  • AWS A2.4, Standard Symbols for Welding Brazing, and Nondestructive Examination
  • Jefferson's Welding Encyclopedia 8th Edition (published by the American Welding Society)
  • RIA 15.06, American National Standard of Industrial Robots and Robot Systems – Safety Systems


A CRAW Renewal Application must be submitted with the appropriate fees to the AWS. The CRAW Operator or Technician shall renew his/her certification every three years by reexamination.

Alternatively, the CRAW Operator or Technician can meet the following requirements for renewal without examination:

  • Attest to two years activity, of their three-year certification period, in the practice of welding or related activities. 
  • One of the two years of activity may be fulfilled by satisfactory documentation of the completion or teaching of a minimum of forty (40) contact hours of training courses whose content must be in the occupational skill of welding, or subjects related to welding, its application, control, materials, and processes as indicated in QC19, Specification for AWS Certification of Robotic Arc Welding Personnel.


After nine years from the date of initial certification, and each nine years thereafter, recertification shall be granted by meeting one of the following requirements:

  • Completing the current performance test of the CRAW Operator or Technician examination (current test at the time of application for re¬certification) 
  • Documenting two (2) years of continued activity in inspection, welding, design, production, construction, or repair, during the last three years of certification, and by presenting evidence of participation in one or more of the activities listed in QC19, Specification for AWS Certification of Robotic Arc Welding Personnel totaling 80 contact hours and documented as 8 CEUs, or 80 PDHs in combination.



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