Certified Robotic Arc Welding


The AWS Certification Program for Robotic Arc Welding - Operators and Technicians (CRAW) allows many welding personnel employed in various welding sectors to measure themselves against standards for their occupation. It also signifies that the CRAW Operator or Technician has demonstrated the capability of working with various codes, standards, and specifications. Since proof of active practice or re-examination is required every three years, certification also signifies that the CRAW Operator or Technician is current with the welding industry.

CRAW Approved Testing Centers

AWS CRAW Approved Testing Centers (ATCs) prepare individuals for certification and administer both the practical and written exams at their respective facilities.

Do you have the necessary arc welding equipment to test individuals to the requirements of the Certified Robotic Arc Welding (CRAW) program? If so, consider applying for AWS Approved Testing Center (ATC) designation. As a designated CRAW ATC, your facility enjoys valuable industry recognition, including your AWS website listing and periodic Welding Journal magazine advertising. Visit the ATC Facility Accreditation information page: CRAW APPROVED TESTING CENTER.

Requirements for CRAW Exam Qualification
The AWS D16.4:2005 Specification for the Qualification of Robotic Arc Welding Personnel and the QC19, Specification for AWS Certification of Robotic Arc Welding Personnel sets the experience and education requirements for taking the CRAW examination and provides training recommendations:

High school graduate or have achieved a state or military approved high school equivalency (e.g., GED).
Operator and Technician

At least 6 months.
Operator and Technician

Includes the before mentioned 6 months of manual or semiautomatic arc welding.
Operator = 12 months
Technician = 18 months

Includes welder experience listed above and other functions such as inspector or quality control.
Operator = 3 or more years
Technician = 5 or more years

Post-secondary education in welding, technical, robotic, technology, electrical, or engineering discipline, may be substituted for an equal number of years, but not more than 2 years.

  • Post-secondary education may not be substituted for or credited toward the before mentioned experience requirements of (6) months of manual or semiautomatic arc welding processes as a welder.
    Operator and Technician
  • Post-secondary education may not be substituted for the months of experience as a welder.
    Operator = 12 months (including robotic and automatic operator)
    Technician = 18 months (including robotic and automatic operator)

Hold current CWI (Certified Welding Inspector) certification. Current CWI certification is a requirement for the CRAW-T certification. Failure to achieve and/or maintain CWI certification will result in the CRAW-O certification ONLY.
Technician only.

Operator: Completion of original equipment manufacturer or equivalent Robotic Programming Course.

Technician: Receive instruction in the operation of quality measuring tools including applicable computer software for measuring the weld cross section. Also, be familiar with personal computers.


Photo ID Requirements

AWS adopts the same guidelines for photos as does the U.S. Department of State for passport photos. The following guidelines are borrowed and modified from the U.S. Department of State website.

Your photo is a vital part of your application. To learn more, review the information below on how to provide a suitable photo to avoid processing delays. The acceptance of your photo is always at the discretion of the AWS.

We recommend you use a professional passport photo service to ensure your photo meets all the requirements.

If you are applying for a Certification, you must provide one (1) passport-style photograph. Your photo must be:

  • In color
  • Printed on photo quality paper
  • 2 x 2 inches (51 x 51 mm) in size
  • Sized such that the head is between 1 inch and 1 3/8 inches (between 25 and 35 mm) from the bottom of the chin to the top of the head.
  • Including the full head from the top of the hair to the bottom of the chin and the top of the shoulders
  • Center the head with the frame
  • Taken within the last 6 months to reflect your current appearance
  • Taken in front of a plain white or off-white background
  • Taken in full-face view directly facing the camera
  • With a neutral facial expression and both eyes open
  • Taken in clothing that you normally wear on a daily basis:
    • Uniforms should not be worn in your photo, except religious clothing that is worn daily.
    • Do not wear a hat or head covering that obscures the hair or hairline, unless worn daily for a religious purpose. Your full face must be visible, and the head covering must not cast any shadows on your face.
    • Headphones, wireless hands-free devices or similar items are not acceptable in your photo.
    • If you normally wear prescription glasses, a hearing device or similar articles, they may be worn for your photo.
    • Dark glasses or non-prescription glasses with tinted lenses are not acceptable unless you need them for medical reasons (a medical certificate may be required)
    • Glare on glasses is not acceptable in your photo. Glare can be avoided with a slight downward tilt of the glasses or by removing the glasses or by turning off the camera flash.

Photos may be rejected and a new one requested if the photo has any of the following deficiencies:

  • Shadows on the face or in the background
  • Poor contrast (too bright, too dark)
  • Poor coloring
  • Poor focus
  • Poor resolution (discernible pixels)
  • Poor exposure (over or under)
  • Noticeable tilt of the head

Photos copied or digitally scanned from driver's licenses or other official documents are not acceptable. In addition, snapshots, magazine photos, low quality vending machine or mobile phone photos, and full-length photographs are not acceptable

Want to take the photo yourself?
While we recommend you use a professional passport photo service to ensure your photo meets all the requirements, you may take the photo yourself. Hand-held self-portraits are not acceptable. Photos must not be digitally enhanced or altered to change your appearance in any way. Please use reliable references for guidance on taking your own photo. There are several online software tools for this purpose. It is your responsibility to ensure the tool you use produces a photo that meets AWS specifications.

Examination results will NOT be released until we receive the 2 x 2 inch color passport-style photograph. To avoid delays in receiving your examination results, please mail your photo to the address listed below: 
American Welding Society Certification Department Photo Center
8669 NW 36 Street, Suite 130
Miami, FL 33166-6672


We recommend using priority mail with tracking options.


CRAW Technician/Operator Exam or Retest 275 490
CRAW Operator to Technician Upgrade 100 100 **
CRAW Technician/Operator Renewal 200 415

* Non-Member price includes a 3-year AWS Individual Membership unless otherwise noted.
** Non-Member price includes a 1-year AWS Individual Membership.

To view full price list click here.


Training is offered by several AWS Approved Testing Centers (ATCs). Be sure to contact an ATC representative to submit your application and schedule your CRAW training and exam.

AWS CRAW Approved Testing Centers (ATCs) List


Examination Minimum number of questions

Each of the two examinations shall not have an individual score less than 75%. The examination is two hours long. Part A exam consists of 136 multiple choice questions. The exam will be given in a closed book format. The Part B practical exam is performance based and consists of 30 tasks that cover the practical demonstration of knowledge and ability involving a robotic system and are completed in sequential order. The CRAW written examination subjects are listed in AWS QC19, Specification for AWS Certification of Robotic Arc Welding Personnel. In preparation for the practical examination, candidates may use the CRAW Performance Test- Candidate Information Booklet. Both parts of the exam will be conducted at the same AWS Approved Testing Center.

Registration/Application for Training and Exams
Welding personnel who wish to be trained and tested for CRAW certification can do so by contacting an ATC representative at any of the AWS CRAW Approved Testing Centers (ATCs).

Below is the current schedule for training and testing. Please confirm the dates of these upcoming training/exam sessions when you contact the ATC representative.

Dates CRAW ATC ATC Representative

Exam: Oct/16

Genesis Systems Group, Davenport, Iowa

Jane Gumpert

Exam: Oct/22

Lincoln Electric Co., Cleveland, Ohio

Patricia DeDonno

Exam: Oct/22-23

Wolf Robotics, Fort Collins, Colorado

Darren Pape

Exam: Oct/30

ABB, Inc., Auburn Hills, Michigan

Keith Lloyd

On Request

Milwaukee Area Technical College, Milwaukee, WI

Lawrence Gross

On Request

Wolf Robotics, Fort Collins, Colorado

Darren Pape

If an individual fails any portion of the CRAW exam, contact the AWS Approved Testing Center (ATC) representative to schedule a date to retest.

Veteran Benefits

If you're a veteran with G.I. Bill Benefits, and you're looking for a good job, or you want to change jobs, or if you want to move ahead in your present job, licensing or certification may hold the key for you!

Find out more

Body of Knowledge

The written exam covers the following subject areas. There is no body of knowledge for the practical exam, however the CRAW Performance Test - Candidate Information Booklet provides the tasks that test candidates are expected to complete.

Subject Approximate %
Weld Equipment Setup   8
Welding Processes 15
Weld Examination 8
Definitions and Terminology 8
Symbols - Welding & Robotics 4
Safety 12
Destructive Testing 8
Conversion and Calculations 3
Robot Programming and Logic 20
Welding Procedures 8
Kinematic Concepts 3
Robot Arc Weld Cell Compenents - ID 3
Totals 100%

The CRAW exams (written and practical) are taken from the following references:

  • AWS A3.0, Standard Welding Terms and Definitions
  • AWS B1.10, Guide for Nondestructive Inspection of Welds
  • AWS B1.11, Guide for Visual Welding Inspection
  • AWS B5.1, Qualification Standard for AWS Welding Inspectors
  • AWS QC1, Standard for AWS Certification of Welding Inspectors
  • AWS WI, Welding Inspection
  • AWS CM-00, Certification Manual for Welding Inspectors
  • AWS B2.1, Specification for Welding Procedure and Performance Qualification
  • AWS D8.8, Specification for Automotive and Light Truck Weld Quality: Arc Welding
  • AWS D16.2, Standard for Components of Robotic and Automatic Welding
  • AWS D16.3, Risk Assessment Guide for Robotic Arc Welding
  • AWS D16.4, Specification for the Qualification of Robotic Arc Welding Personnel
  • ANSI Z49.1, Safety in Welding, Cutting and Allied Processes (published by the American Welding Society)
  • NEMA EW-1, Electric Arc Welding Power Sources AWS Arc Welding with Robots, Do's and Don'ts
  • Automating the Welding Process, Jim Berge, Industrial Press
  • AWS Welding Handbook, Volume 1, 9th Edition
  • AWS Welding Handbook Volume 2, 8th Edition  Robot Programming Manual (published by robot manufacturer)
  • AWS 058, Arc Welding Automation, Howard Car
  • AWS A2.4, Standard Symbols for Welding Brazing, and Nondestructive Examination
  • Jefferson's Welding Encyclopedia 8th Edition (published by the American Welding Society)
  • RIA 15.06, American National Standard of Industrial Robots and Robot Systems – Safety Systems


A CRAW Renewal Application must be submitted with the appropriate fees to the AWS. The CRAW Operator or Technician shall renew his/her certification every three years by reexamination.

Alternatively, the CRAW Operator or Technician can meet the following requirements for renewal without examination:

  • Attest to two years activity, of their three-year certification period, in the practice of welding or related activities. 
  • One of the two years of activity may be fulfilled by satisfactory documentation of the completion or teaching of a minimum of forty (40) contact hours of training courses whose content must be in the occupational skill of welding, or subjects related to welding, its application, control, materials, and processes as indicated in QC19, Specification for AWS Certification of Robotic Arc Welding Personnel.


After nine years from the date of initial certification, and each nine years thereafter, recertification shall be granted by meeting one of the following requirements:

  • Completing the current performance test of the CRAW Operator or Technician examination (current test at the time of application for re¬certification) 
  • Documenting two (2) years of continued activity in inspection, welding, design, production, construction, or repair, during the last three years of certification, and by presenting evidence of participation in one or more of the activities listed in QC19, Specification for AWS Certification of Robotic Arc Welding Personnel totaling 80 contact hours and documented as 8 CEUs, or 80 PDHs in combination.