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 WELDING JOURNAL - June 2005, Volume 84, Number 6
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welding journal June 2005 coverJUNE, 2005

FEATURES

Tube Welding Using the Pressure Balancing Technique
At Dunfermline, FMC is engaged in the fabrication of subsea well head control systems, known as "Christmas Trees," which operate remotely in offshore environments around the world. A critical issue to FMC's fabrication process is the installation of hydraulic control lines on the "Tree," which is fundamental to the equipment operation, subsea — Fig. 1. IFP Fluid Systems was the chosen subcontractor employed by FMC to carry out the pipework installation for its subsea systems, and it is constantly evolving its processes to improve control and efficiency to deliver a fast turnaround, zero defect production. IFP has selected and employed the latest technology in orbital welding control to deliver a simplified, integrated welding and control system from Orbitec Limited. The most recent project for a large West African subsea contract was the first to be completed using the new Orbitec PPA system, where an average of 110 welds on each tree was controlled through stringent production and inspection procedures.
A. Brunning

Orbital Welding for Brazilian Space Applications
Through the years, technological inventions originating from space activities have made remarkable contributions to the development of various industrial sectors, for example, the mechanical manufacturing area. In this area, welding technology is one of the most prominent, due to the increasing demand for high-quality welded structures for materials with special manufacturing requirements. These demands have prompted development of a new generation of programmable power supplies. In parallel, the development of special orbital weld heads has permitted use of this kind of technology to automate gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) of tubes, fittings, and other components of various diameters. The technology has been applied in such diverse areas as the aerospace, nuclear power, food, and pharmaceutical industries. New techniques such as the use of pulsed current synchronized to the welding wire unit and to the travel speed, both of which are pulsed, permit the execution of welds in any position.
J. Orlowski et al.


Cold Metal Transfer Has a Future Joining Steel to Aluminum
Joining aluminum with steel can improve the characteristics of components used in industrial applications. Especially in the automotive industry, joining of these two metals minimizes energy consumption through a reduction in weight.

Until recently, mechanical joining of these two metals — clinching, screwing, etc. — was mostly used to attach or band them. Thermal joining has been strongly restricted due to the formation of the intermetallic phase. These phases are very brittle and, therefore, deteriorate the mechanical properties of such joints.
J. Bruckner

How to Cup Walk
Cup walking is a lesser-known gas tungsten arc (GTA) method for welding pipe. It offers consistently high-quality welds while minimizing operator fatigue. It is a relatively slow process, but in pipe welding, precision and quality always take precedence over speed. Explained here are the basic details of the technique.

The ABCs of Cup Walking
In cup walking, the GTAW torch nozzle rests right on the pipe, and the filler metal is placed in the groove that is being welded.

M. Sammons

Fabricating an Offshore Cantilevered Deck Structure
A recently commissioned Danish offshore platform experienced higher than anticipated levels of barium and strontium sulfates when seawater containing sulfates was injected into the reservoir containing formation water bearing strontium and barium ions (Ref. 1). Whereas strontium sulfate was considered a minor concern, a barium sulfate buildup could have resulted in scaling of production tubulars, which would cause serious economic and production problems.

To control this problem, a sulfate-removal plant (SRP) was needed to treat the seawater prior to injection into the reservoir. The SRP consists of modular units with a total weight of 228 tons.
J. R. Still et al.

Available: Ready-to-Work Welding Technicians and Engineers
The professors at Ferris State University, Big Rapids, Mich., do not believe it is possible to buy a car made in North America that has not been touched by one of its welding graduates.

According to Professor Kenneth Kuk, who has been teaching at Ferris for 21 years, thousands of Associate in Applied Science (A.A.S.) degrees in Welding Technology (WELT) have been awarded by Ferris since the program started in 1972, and more than 300 Bachelor of Science (B.S.) degrees in Welding Engineering Technology (WELE) have been awarded since that program started in 1984.

"Over the last 20 years, about 50% of them work in the automotive industry," Kuk said of Ferris welding graduates.

Ferris has a 2 + 2 program. In the first two years, students are in the Welding Technology program to earn an A.A.S. degree.
K. Campbell


WELDING RESEARCH SUPPLEMENT

*Chemical Analysis of Welding Fume Particles (.pdf)
Airborne particle size proves an important factor in determining welding fume toxicity
N. T. Jenkins and T. W. Eagar

*Service Life of Tungsten Electrodes in Hyperbaric Dry Underwater Welding (.pdf)
A means of determining tungsten electrode service life under hyperbaric conditions is presented
H. Ozden and K. T. Gursel
Departments

Washington Watchword

Press Time News

Editorial

News of the Industry

Point of View
Walter Sperko

Brazing Q&A

New Products

Aluminum Q&A

Coming Events

Navy Joining Center

Society News

Tech Topics
Standards Errata

Guide to AWS Services

Personnel

New Literature

Classifieds (in pdf)

Advertiser Index

Welding Journal (ISSN 0043-2296) is published monthly by the American Welding Society for $90.00 per year in the United States and possessions, $130 per year in foreign countries: $6.00 per single issue for AWS members and $8.00 per single issue for nonmembers. American Welding Society is located at 550 NW LeJeune Rd., Miami, FL 33126-5671; telephone (305) 443-9353. Periodicals postage paid in Miami, Fla., and additional mailing offices. POSTMASTER: Send address changes to Welding Journal, 550 NW LeJeune Rd., Miami, FL 33126-5671.

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