Welding Handbook - 9th Edition, Volume 1

Welding Handbook - 9th Edition, Volume 1

Welding Science and Technology

Get an overview of the most recent research and engineering developments in the field of welding science and technology. Features 17 chapters covering the fundamentals of welding, cutting, joining, and allied processes. Four chapters discuss metallurgy, the physics of welding and cutting, heat flow in welding, and residual stress and distortion. Other important chapters discuss the engineering considerations of weld design, weldment tooling and positioning, automation, process monitoring and control (new in this volume), methods for the evaluation and testing of welds, weld quality, weld inspection and nondestructive examination, and the economics of welding. Well-researched chapters on codes and other standards, the qualification and certification of welding techniques and personnel, the accurate communication of welding information, and safe practices are included.

Two useful appendices present a glossary to standard welding terms and a guide to metric practice for the welding industry. The information is applicable to all categories of welding, from manual welding to the most sophisticated automated and robotic systems.

Peer-reviewed for accuracy.

More than 700 drawings, schematics, and photographs illustrate the text. Approximately 170 tables provide categorized or comparative information. At the end of each chapter, readers wanting to know more are referred to a Supplementary Reading List. For easy access to specific topics, a table of contents for each chapter is presented on the cover page, and a subject index with cross-references appears at the end of each volume. A major subject index of this volume and previous editions is included to direct the reader to the volume and chapter of interest.

This volume, like the others preceding it, is a voluntary effort by the members of the Welding Handbook Committee, The Welding Handbook Volume 1 Committee, and the Chapter Committees. An important contribution is the review of each chapter provided by AWS–s Technical Activities Committee and other specialists. (ISBN 0-87171-657-7)


Table of Contents

MEET THE AUTHORS

CHAPTER 1 – SURVEY OF JOINING, CUTTING, AND ALLIED PROCESSES

  • Introduction
  • Joining Processes
  • Cutting Processes
  • Thermal Spraying
  • Conclusion
  • Bibliography
  • Supplementary Reading List

CHAPTER 2--PHYSICS OF WELDING AND CUTTING

  • Introduction
  • Fusion and Solid-State Welding
  • Energy Sources for Welding
  • Arc Characteristics
  • Metal Transfer
  • Melting Rates
  • Physical Properties of Metals and Shielding Gases
  • Conclusion
  • Bibliography
  • Supplementary Reading List

CHAPTER 3--HEAT FLOW IN WELDING

  • Introduction
  • Heat Flow Fundamentals
  • Quantitative Calculation of Heat Transfer in Fusion Welding
  • Conduction of Heat during Fusion Welding
  • Convective Heat Transfer in the Weld Pool
  • Relative Importance of Conduction and Convection
  • Conclusion
  • Bibliography
  • Supplementary Reading List

CHAPTER 4--WELDING METALLURGY

  • Introduction
  • Physical Metallurgy
  • Metallurgy of Welding
  • Weldability of Commercial Alloys
  • Corrosion in Weldments
  • The Brazed or Soldered Joint
  • Corrosion in Brazed and Soldered Joints
  • Conclusion
  • Bibliography
  • Supplementary Reading List

CHAPTER 5--DESIGN FOR WELDING

  • Introduction
  • Properties of Metals
  • Weldment Design Program
  • Welded Design Considerations
  • Design of Welded Joints
  • Selection of Weld Type
  • Sizing of Steel Welds
  • Tubular Connections
  • Aluminum Structures
  • Conclusion
  • Bibliography
  • Supplementary Reading List

CHAPTER 6--TEST METHODS FOR EVALUATING WELDED JOINTS

  • Introduction
  • Testing for Strength
  • Hardness Tests
  • Bend Tests
  • Fracture Toughness Testing
  • Fatigue Testing
  • Corrosion Testing
  • Creep and Rupture Testing
  • Testing of Thermal Spray Applications
  • Weldability Testing
  • Conclusion
  • Bibliography
  • Supplementary Reading List

CHAPTER 7--RESIDUAL STRESS AND DISTORTION

  • Introduction
  • Fundamentals
  • Nature and Causes of Residual Stress
  • Effects of Residual Stress
  • Measurement of Residual Stress
  • Residual Stress Distribution Patterns
  • Effects of Specimen Size and Weight
  • Effects of Welding Sequence
  • Residual Stress in Welds Made with Different Welding Processes
  • Weld Distortion
  • Reducing or Controlling Residual Stress and Distortion
  • Conclusion
  • Bibliography
  • Supplementary Reading List

CHAPTER 8--SYMBOLS FOR JOINING AND INSPECTION

  • Introduction
  • Fundamentals
  • Welding Symbols
  • Welding Symbols for Specific Weld
  • Brazing Symbols
  • Soldering Symbols
  • Inspection Symbols
  • Conclusion
  • Bibliography
  • Supplementary Reading List

CHAPTER 9--WELDMENT TOOLING AND POSITIONING

  • Introduction
  • Fixtures
  • Positioners
  • Conclusion
  • Bibliography
  • Supplementary Reading List

CHAPTER 10--MONITORING AND CONTROL OF WELDING AND JOINING PROCESSES

  • Introduction
  • Principles of Monitoring and Control
  • Sensing Devices
  • Process Instrumentation
  • Process Monitoring Systems
  • Process Control Systems
  • Monitoring and Control Systems
  • Conclusion
  • Bibliography
  • Supplementary Reading List

CHAPTER 11--MECHANIZED, AUTOMATED, AND ROBOTIC WELDING

  • Introduction
  • Mechanized Welding
  • Automated Welding
  • Robotic Welding
  • Planning for Automated and Robotic Welding
  • Conclusion
  • Bibliography
  • Supplementary Reading List

CHAPTER 12--ECONOMICS OF WELDING AND CUTTING

  • Introduction
  • The Cost Estimate
  • Economics of Welding
  • Automated and Robotic Systems
  • Economics of Resistance Spot Welding
  • Capital Investment in Welding Automation and Robotics
  • Control of Welding Costs
  • Economics of Brazing and Soldering
  • Economics of Thermal Cutting
  • Conclusion
  • Bibliography
  • Supplementary Reading List

CHAPTER 13--WELD QUALITY

  • Introduction
  • Defining Weld Quality
  • Overview of Weld Discontinuities
  • Discontinuities Associated with Fusion Welding
  • Discontinuities Associated with Resistance Welding
  • Discontinuities Associated with the Solid-State Welding Processes
  • Discontinuities in Brazed and Soldered Joints
  • Significance of Weld Discontinuities
  • Conclusion
  • Bibliography
  • Supplementary Reading List

CHAPTER 14--WELDING INSPECTION AND NONDESTRUCTIVE EXAMINATION

  • Introduction
  • Personnel Qualifications
  • The Inspection Plan
  • Nondestructive Examination
  • Metallographic Examination Methods
  • Inspection of Brazed and Soldered Joints
  • Conclusion
  • Bibliography
  • Supplementary Reading List

CHAPTER 15--QUALIFICATION AND CERTIFICATION

  • Introduction
  • Welding and Brazing Procedure Specifications
  • Qualification of Welding and Brazing Procedures
  • Performance Qualification
  • Standardization of Qualification Requirements
  • Conclusion
  • Bibliography
  • Supplementary Reading List

CHAPTER 16--CODES AND OTHER STANDARDS

  • Introduction
  • Types of Regulatory Documents
  • Standards-Developing Organizations and Welding-Related Publications
  • Guidelines for Participating in International Standards Activities
  • Conclusion
  • Supplementary Reading List

CHAPTER 17--SAFE PRACTICES

  • Introduction
  • Safety Management
  • Protection of the Work Area
  • Personal Protective Equipment
  • Protection against Fumes and Gases
  • Safe Handling of Compressed Gases
  • Protection against Electromagnetic Radiation
  • Electrical Safety
  • Fire Prevention
  • Explosion Prevention
  • Process-Specific Safety Considerations
  • Safety in Robotic Operations
  • Conclusion
  • Bibliography
  • Supplementary Reading List

APPENDIX A--TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
APPENDIX B--METRIC PRACTICE GUIDE FOR THE WELDING INDUSTRY

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